James M. Imbong v. Hon. Paquito N. Ochoa, Jr.

In 2012, the Philippines enacted the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012, known as the Reproductive Health Law (RH Law), which guaranteed universal and free access to nearly all modern contraceptives to all citizens, including those living in poverty, through government health centers. The law also mandated reproductive health education in government schools and recognized the right to post-abortion care as part of the right to reproductive healthcare.

The RH Law was immediately challenged by various religious and conservative groups. The Supreme Court of the Philippines issued an order preventing the law from going into effect pending a final judgment. The RH Law was challenged on the grounds that it violated a range of constitutional rights, such as the rights to life, health, freedom of religion and speech, and privacy.